On 10 May 1940, Operation Fork was launched by the United Kingdom when military forces sailed into Reykjavík harbour and began an invasion of Iceland. The process of settlement was recorded in the Landnamabok. [citation needed] King Christian X nonetheless sent a message of congratulations to the Icelandic people. For one thing, Iceland is positioned directly between mainland Europe, to its east, and North America, to … King Frederick VI and his court, following the example of the Portuguese Royal family, fled the country with loyalists and set sail for Iceland. Arnarson establishes a settlement, based on fishing and sheep farming. Jørgen Jørgensen, Jörundur hundadagakonungur ("Jørgen the dog-days King" in Icelandic), a Danish adventurer that proclaimed himself temporary king during some months of 1809. According to tradition the first Viking to discover Iceland was a man named Naddoddur who got lost while on his way to the Faeroe Islands. Template:Body )[citation needed], Following a constitutional referendum in May 1944, Iceland formally became a republic on 17 June 1944. The Kingdom of Iceland (Icelandic: Konungsríkið Ísland; Danish: Kongeriget Island) was a sovereign and independent country with a constitutional and hereditary monarchy that was established by the Act of Union with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918. December 01 in history: Pak's first woman PM, Kingdom of Iceland established, and more. 1980 - Vigdis Finnbogadottir becomes first woman president of Iceland. The Icelandic Coast Guard begins operating around Iceland. 930 – The Icelandic Parliament is founded 3. 874 – The first official settlement in Iceland 2. 1919. [2], Because of the Kalmar Union, Iceland had been under the control of the Crown of Denmark since 1380,[4] although formally it had been a Norwegian possession until 1814. List of Norwegian monarchs; List of Danish monarchs; List of Swedish monarchs; List of Finnish monarchs; List of Greenlandic rulers; Notes King of Iceland. Learn more about Iceland, including its history. The defence of Iceland was the United States' first participation in World War II. Settlement (870–930) The first permanent settler of Iceland was Ingólfur Arnarson, a rich and influential Norwegian chieftain who sailed to Iceland to settle in 874 AD. The German invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940 and subsequent occupation severed communications between Iceland and Denmark. Dating in Iceland and hearing the Icelandic speak with their cute dialect or hearing them say words in Icelandic is most definitely also a BIG positive factor of why you should date while traveling in Iceland. [2] As a result, on 10 April, the Althing passed two resolutions investing the Icelandic cabinet with the power of head of state and declaring that Iceland would accept full responsibility for both foreign policy and coastal surveillance. View in App. 1281 Jónsbók is published and introduced to Icelanders 8. First of all, it should be understood that Iceland’s position on the globe is one of enormous strategic importance for any party engaged in international warfare. For the most part foreign affairs continued to be handled by the Danish foreign service, as decided by Iceland. Iceland, island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean. Ford Motor Company institutes world's 1st moving assembly line (Photograph:WION) 1918 . Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_rulers_of_Iceland&oldid=977842661, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 September 2020, at 08:57. [2] The Allied occupation of Iceland lasted until 1941 when the Government of Iceland asked the United States (which was then neutral) to take over its defence. 1703: First census is conducted; population 50,358. The Act would be reviewed in 1940 and could be revoked three years later if agreement to continue it could not be reached. On the day of the invasion, Prime Minister Hermann Jónasson read a radio announcement instructing Icelanders to treat the British troops as guests. It only came to these lands with Christianity, and that means that there are few written sources from the early periods, other than the sagas - written centuries later. Following him, a Swede named Gardar Svavarsson circumnavigated Iceland about 860. 965 – The country is officially split up into four quarters 4. Iceland, first discovered by Vikings ca. have been prosecuted for their involvement in the crash, and many were sentenced to prison time. [5] In 1874, one thousand years after the first acknowledged settlement, Denmark granted Iceland home rule. 1540s–1550s: Reformation in Iceland. Iceland remained independent until 1262, when it entered into a treaty which established a union with the Norwegian monarchy. [7], During the first year of World War II, Iceland strictly enforced a position of neutrality and took action against both British and German forces that violated it. It is the most photograped mountain in Iceland. At least if you ask me! His accomplishments were a special national flag which was commissioned and he had Fort Phelps built -- it was situated in Reykjavík where the National Bank of Iceland is currently. In 930, the ruling chiefs established a republican constitution and an assembly called the Althing—the oldest parliament in the world. List of rulers of Iceland: | | ||| | |Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Iceland| ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and … Iceland remained a Danish dependency throughout the 19th century . The Founding of Iceland by Bob Brooke. 1584: The Bible is translated into Icelandic. 1. [2] The Parliament of Iceland asked that Denmark represent Iceland internationally, and day-to-day matters were delegated to a Danish plenipotentiary for Icelandic affairs based in Reykjavík, and – after the German invasion of Denmark in 1940 – a regent was appointed. The union between Denmark and Norway, ignoring some shorter periods, lasted until 1814, when Norway briefly gained independence, and Iceland became an integral part of Denmark until 1918, when Iceland was recognised as a fully sovereign state united with Denmark under a common monarch, on 1 December that same year. It also appeared in season 6 episode 5 with Kirkjufellsfoss which is also on the photo, when the children of the forest created the first … The Kingdom of Iceland (1918-1944) was a constitutional monarchy in personal union with the Template:Lf located in the North Atlantic. [6] A minister for Icelandic affairs, residing in Reykjavík, was made responsible to the Althing, the Icelandic parliament. The King of Iceland By Theodore M. Andersson What every medievalist knows about medieval Iceland is that it had no king, at least not until 1262 when it passed under the control of the Norwegian crown. Loading... Unsubscribe from Cathleen Mason? However, the first Viking attempt to settle was by a Norwegian named Floki Vilgeroarson. The Landnámabók relates at length the tale of the first historical settler of Iceland, Ingólfr Arnarson (c. 874 CE). As the nation’s full independence seemed a likely outcome in the near future there were Icelanders who thought that the country should remain a monarchy. The first flight of an airplane takes place in Reykjavík. Iceland was first inhabited in the late 9th and 10th centuries. Possession of Norway (1262–1814) Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image; Haakon IV. In 1811, Napoleon invaded Denmark-Norway with a large force with the intention of capturing the Danish fleet and adding Scandinavia to his empire. The constitution, written the same year, was revised in 1903 and the extent of Iceland's home rule increased in 1904. 1387: The Kalmar Act of Union unifies Iceland and Norway with Denmark. 860, was settled by Norwegian Vikings in the years 870-930. Following a constitutional referendum between 20 and 23 May 1944, Iceland formally became an independent republic on 17 June 1944. The first 20 hours -- how to learn anything | Josh Kaufman | TEDxCSU - … Iceland was the birthplace of Leif Eriksson, who is believed by many to have led the first European voyage to North America. 1402: The Black Plague infects Iceland. Irish monks inhabiting the island have either been expelled or enslaved. The most prominent of these … 995 – King Olaf first attempt to convert Icelanders to Christianity 5. Ingolfr and his foster-brother Hjörleifr were involved in a blood-feud in Norway and left for Iceland. The assembly was called the Althingi. The Vikings’ next step out into the Atlantic – the discovery and settlement of Iceland – is one of the best documented events of the Viking Age. The other main source, Landnámabók (The Book of Settlements), of 12th-century origin but known only in later versions, states explicitly that the first permanent settler, Ingólfr Arnarson, came from Norway to Iceland to settle in the year 874. Since Denmark was still occupied by Germany, many Danes felt offended that the step should have been taken at the time[citation needed]. Iceland was the first of the affected countries to start penalising bankers. 1985 - Iceland declares itself a nuclear-free zone. Over 25 people (and counting!) [3], Under a personal union, due to the Act of Union, the monarch was simultaneously monarch of Denmark. The first settler was Ingólfur Arnarson, who settled in Reykjavík. They are said to have encountered Irish monks on the island who then left because they did not wish to live among the heathens. Through the Act of Union with Denmark signed on December 1, 1918, The Kingdom of Iceland was at the time recognised as a fully sovereign state in union with Denmark through a common monarch. That first winter, all of his livestock died, causing him to decide to leave the island. In the Viking society, great deeds and great heroeswere the subject of songs and tales - but only in oral form. Iceland was settled in 874 AD. In the late 14th century Norway and Denmark entered into a union. Still, the King of Denmark, Christian X, sent a message of congratulations to the Icelandic people. When Germany took over Denmark on April 9 1940, the Althing decided that Icelandic’s should rule the country themselves, but they did not declare independence yet. Together with his wife, Hallveig Fróðadóttir, he built a homestead on a site that he named Reykjavík. Iceland was settled in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, principally by people of Norwegian and other Scandinavian origin. Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Iceland. [2] As many as 40,000 American soldiers were then stationed on the island, outnumbering the native population of adult men. This is a list of rulers of Iceland, ruling from 1262 to 1944. Iceland was first discovered in 874 AD by the Norse. Many Danes felt offended at its timing, as Denmark was still occupied by Germany. It’s hard to estimate how many bankers worldwide faced legal consequences for the crash, but Iceland definitely leads the way: According to the Financial Times, Iceland has jailed more bankers [2] The government of Iceland issued a protest against what it called a "flagrant violation" of Icelandic neutrality. [citation needed], On 1 December 1918, the Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark, recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state, an independent country in personal union with Denmark through a common monarch. It shares the same monarch with Denmark. The Kingdom of Iceland established its own flag and coat of arms and asked that Denmark represent its foreign affairs and defence interests on its behalf while retaining full control over its foreign affairs and defence. It was settled by Norse and Danish colonists and by the Napoleonic Wars, was a dependency of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway. Iceland changed into at first protected in forests as far as the attention could see according to widely wide-spread history, a seafarer named Garðarr Svávarsson sailed around the complete island in the later ninth century and proclaimed that it becomes “wooded from the mountains all the way down to the ocean.” Currently, about 2% of Iceland is forested. Skaldic poetry was a great tradition of the north - skilled skalds (ba… History Talk (0) Share. The country’s capital is Reykjavik. 25 years later, the agreement expired. King of Iceland Cathleen Mason. [citation needed], At its peak, Britain had approximately 25,000 troops stationed in Iceland, all but eliminating unemployment in Reykjavík and other strategically important places. Edit. The first people to settle in Iceland were probably Irish monks who came in the 8th century. Ford Motor Company institutes world's 1st moving assembly line, twelve nations sign the Antarctic Treaty, and more — here's what happened on this day in history . While his claim is often disputed by historians, Sverre believed that he was destined for greater things in his life. (Iceland's total native population during the war was approximately 120,000. On the 27th of April that same year, King Fr… The first people who lived on Iceland are thought to have been Irish monks. The first family of Iceland: 874: In 874 Viking longships are beached on a promontory in the southwest of Iceland, where Reykjavik now stands. Iceland opened its first Embassy in 1920. However, in the 9th century, they were driven out by Vikings. Hjörleifr and his party were killed by the slaves they had … The island was settled by the Norse seafarers in the ninth century; they established the world's first known republic and parliament in about AD 930. In 1918, the Act of Union agreement was signed with Denmark, recognizing Iceland as a fully sovereign state in a personal union with the King of Denmark. Americans celebrate the landing of the first pilgrim settlers and the taming of the West, Afrikaners revere the trekboers who conquered and occupied the wilderness of South Africa during the 18th century. On 15 May 1941, the Althing adopted a law creating the position of regent for Sveinn Björnsson in order to represent the monarchy. The story goes that he was named Hrafna-Flóki, which means Raven-Flóki, because of the three ravens he brought with him on his journey to Iceland to help him find his way to the island around 865 AD. Following the creation of its constitution, Iceland was independent until 1262. In 1918, Iceland got many powers of its own, but the king of Denmark was still king of Iceland. Many of the early settlers of Iceland were small lords and kings from Norway who were fleeing the tyrrany of Harald the Fairhaired who wanted to unify Norway under one king, namely himself. 1980s - Iceland suffers from high inflation, averaging 38% annually. 1397 The Kalmar Union is formed under one united King in Denmark. Iceland History, Language and Culture History of Iceland. The Norse were the main migrants to move to the island, and in 930 CE, Iceland's governing body created a constitution and an assembly. It can be seen in season 7 episode 6 when the heroes go to north of the wall, described as the "Arrowhead mountain". [2] It lasted until 17 June 1944 when a national referendum established the Republic of Iceland in its place. Some of these early settlers were great seafarers and in 982 one of them, Eiríkur Rauði discovered Greenland (so named to attract settlers), and in the year 1000 his son Leifur Heppni … 999 – Icelanders make the decision to switch to Christianity 6. Iceland opened its first Embassy in 1920. Lying on the constantly active geologic border between North America and Europe, Iceland is a land of vivid contrasts of climate, geography, and culture. The Act would be reviewed in 1940 and could be revoked three years later if agreement to continue it could not be reached. In July 1941, the Althingi adopted the American–Icelandic defence agreement, passing responsibility for Iceland's defence to the United States. The Kingdom of Iceland established its own flag and coat of arms and asked that Denmark represent its foreign affairs and defence interests on its behalf while retaining full control over its foreign affairs and defence. Iceland declares perpetual neutrality. Jörgen then pronounced himself as the new King of Iceland on 25 Jun 1809, at the age of 29. They have brought from the coast of Norway a chieftain, Ingólfur Arnarson, together with his family, dependents and livestock. They came to Iceland around the year 800. In Viking era Norway and Scandinavia, literacy was largely nonexistent, outside runic inscriptions. 1913 . [8], World War II, British occupation and the establishment of the republic, national referendum established the Republic of Iceland, "A short history of Alþingi – the oldest parliament in the world", "Iceland, Home Rule and Sovereignty (1904–44)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_Iceland&oldid=994999946, States and territories established in 1918, States and territories disestablished in 1944, Articles with Icelandic-language sources (is), Articles with Danish-language sources (da), Articles containing Icelandic-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2012, Iceland articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 17:34. Sverre Sigurdsson (Old Norse: Sverrir Sigurðarson) believed himself to be the son of Norway's King Sigurd II, after his mother claimed that Sigurd was his real father. 1262–1264: Chieftains in Iceland accept the sovereignty of the King of Norway. 1262 Icelanders submit to the King of Norway 7. But again, I am Danish and my language must be one of the ugliest languages in the world. Over 33% of the population is wiped out. Iceland becomes a sovereign and independent state, the Kingdom of Iceland. He landed in the northwest but a severe winter … https://guidetoiceland.is/history-culture/vikings-and-norse-gods-in-iceland He chose as his homestead a site that he named Reykjavík, which This is a list of rulers of Iceland, ruling from 1262 to 1944. Denmark-Norway with a large force with the Template: Lf located in the crash, more. A dependency of the North Atlantic Ocean 1903 and the extent of Iceland him, a Swede Gardar! 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