But very soon, the total intellectual poverty and inadequacy of explaining human behaviour became too obvious. Theory of human personality Intro to essay 2 q1 DescriptionSummarize Freud’s theory of human, Piaget’s approach to human development, and Mead’s view of the development of the self. Consistency in behaviour results from repeated learning of certain behavioural patterns, resulting in stimulus generalisation and response generalization. Usually a layman uses the term personality to describe the response or behaviour of a person. There is an integration and organisation of these various processes which gives a total meaning to the behaviour of a person. Therefore, learning differences affects … Such a view can be called a descriptive and static view of personality. On the other hand the boundary between the two gets differentiated. Such authoritarian personalities show certain definite characteristics of behaviour like rigidity, hasty judgement, inability to tolerate ambiguous situations, etc. Severe injuries to the brain, prolonged illnesses, infections, etc. In other situations the frustration may be of a different kind. (e) The emphasis is on typical human characteristics like consciousness, self-awareness, creativity, the active ability to make decisions to deal with the environment etc. This method is called the rating method. The idea of human rights has been there for much of the human history. Personality is the characteristics and traits that define a human being. The use of questionnaires to measure personality was first introduced by Woodworth for use in the American army during the First World War. The relationship between human and nature can be described in different ways; it can be beautiful, cruel or at times puzzling. Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of individuals. A global rating may be advantageous under such conditions because errors of such a type may affect the global rating only marginally. A pessimist on the other hand is a “prophet of doom”. Driven by one’s needs, the individual interacts with the environment and in this process the personality develops. From his studies, he came to conclusion that a person’s behavior is affected by their unconscious, "...the notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware..." (Purdue University). The first perspective is the biological perspective of personality. Personality is the main motivation of the human classification since it provides a chance for every individual to display a certain set of behaviors (Fittskirk & Shohov, 2003). In this topic we will discuss about the meaning of Personality. (h) In general the phenomenological approach emphasises “contemporaneity”. According to Lewin, when a particular system in the inner person is activated, the individual’s activity moves from one region to another. The psychologists who have been primarily concerned with studying the structure of personality have devoted their efforts in understanding, describing and measuring these various units of personality. Some psychologists have criticised these tests because the inference drawn from such tests leads to a lot of confusion and even subjectivity. We are familiar with the intimate relationship between psychology and the other social sciences like anthropology and sociology. have been employed to measure personality. The TAT is another test which is used extensively. The person who takes the test is asked to look at each blot and mention all the objects one sees in them. Fortunately, on this question also, one can find a considerable amount of agreement among psychologists. A large part of it is still an enigma. In this discussion we will discuss how each person has a different personality and what features make up their personality. The personality of an individual is the product of a process of development. These blots were selected after trying out a number of variations. He defined personality as an aspect that consists of the collection of human behaviors in a certain environment. This organisation gives a sense of individuality or uniqueness to the person’s behaviour. Here, the term is used to describe the nature of his own response with no reference to his effect on the describer. However, under certain conditions, the personality of an individual may stop growing. For example, when somebody is described as having a pleasant personality, this means that on most of the occasions, this person is very pleasant to meet and get along with. Responses are, thus, classified in this manner. Today, most of the psychologists agree that a personality of the individual is not just a description of different qualities or characteristics. Advanced Search. The behaviouristic approach basically holds the view that psychology should do away with concepts like mind, self, consciousness, etc. Its related pattern of someone emotions, thoughts, feelings and behavior. Through most of human history, it has been assumed (correctly, I sincerely believe) that people come in four basic personality types, or "temperaments". In the use of this term, we may see that the following implications are involved: 1. Attempts of the latter kind are seen in the writings of psychologists like Dollard, Miller, Sears and others who have tried to incorporate the findings of other theories like psychoanalysis in their own theories, while basically retaining the characteristics of the learning theory approach. However, psychologists have been very sharply divided on this issue, and whether a particular psychologist takes a structural view or a functional view influences his research in the field of personality. 638 Primary Personality Traits. Personality About this essay More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin The essays in our library are intended to serve as content examples to inspire you as you write your own essay. It gives meaning and totality to behaviour. His observation was, “no brain, no personality”. Abnormalities result when the development of ‘self-regard’ is not proper or when there is a serious incongruence between one’s own self-perception and evaluation of one’s behaviour and evaluation by others or others perception. The biological perspective is strongly based on other scientific fields in laboratory or clinical conditions such as biology and biochemistry. In many instances, the term personality is used in an evaluative sense. In other words, what is it that personality is made up of? 5. Based on their surrounding, humans can simply accept nature, deal with their situation, Each test and each type of test has its own advantages and disadvantages. The organismic approach emphasises that human behaviour is always purposive, futuristic-oriented, goal-directed and looks for clear meanings in the environment and it is this last characteristic that draws it close to the phenomenological approach. The four major approaches have been the trait approach, the dimensional approach, the type approach, and the factorial approach. It could be traced to the views of Kant, Husserel, Brentano, Carl Stumpf and Ehrenfer on the one hand. They avoid the responsibility and give only middle-level ratings to everyone. A passer-by who carries some liquid on his head in a pot suddenly drops the pot and the young man is drenched. 275 words / page; Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman; … This is known as the global approach, which has the advantage of giving a total assessment of each person. According to Kelly, an individual, in the course of his growth and development comes to develop certain expectations, about events, things and the behaviour of others. But a global assessment requires that the persons carrying out the assessments have the ability to make accurate and comprehensive observations. Some of the general premises of the phenomenological approach are discussed here: (a) The phenomenological approach believes that an individual functions in a world of perceived reality, the world as he or she perceives, organises and construes in his or her own or unique ways perceiving and organising the world around. According to Mischel, some such important variables are the perceptions or how the person perceives the environment (almost phenomenological) the competence of the person in terms of his ability to think and person’s expectations of what the person expects would follow a particular action of his (Rotter expectations), the values, ideas and goals of the person, valences of the goals or attractiveness of the outcomes and findings, and self-regulation or planning the standards which the person sets for himself to attain a goal or objective. It is based on Murray’s theory of personality. Implications of the Psychology of Personality: Essay on the Need for the Concept of Personality, Essay on the Personality as a Descriptive Concept, Essay on the Psychodynamic Approach to Personality, Essay on the Wholistic and Organismic Approaches to Personality, Essay on the Behavioural Approach to Personality, Essay on Kurt Lewin’s View on Personality, Essay on Kelly’s Concept of Personal Constructs, Essay on the Nature and Functions of Personality, Essay on the Implications of the Psychology of Personality. In psychology, the term personality is used to mean a hypothetical construct or an agency which explains the integration of different behavioural processes resulting in meaningful behaviour in such a way so as to make one person different from others. Psychology Essays - perspective on personality Free human personality Essays and Papers - 123helpme Personality of psychology paper Anson Wong - Academiaedu Psychology Essays - Developmental Psychology Personality psychology Essays and Research Papers Short Essay About Personality Psychology Essay Writing Guide for Psychology Students Simply Personality Psychology - GCSE … Different people react differently to frustrating situations. On other occasions, an unstructured questionnaire is preferred. If these conditions are taken care of, then rating is a useful procedure. One may clearly see that in explaining the personality unlike the dynamic theories, which postulate certain stable agencies like the ego, self, etc., the behavioural theories emphasise the situational agencies and not postulate any stable internal system or agencies or mental organs. The process of ‘self- development’ is also guided by the evaluation of others. This approach tends to view personality as a growing, developing and unfolding process and it can never be completely developed. All of us must have come across the term personality. For example, sudden changes and transformation of behaviour can scarcely be explained by this approach. The outer environment gets differentiated into various regions like home, playground, school, etc. Describe Your Personality (Essay Sample) August 31, 2017 by admin Essay Samples, Free Essay Samples. People have the right to do whatever they please whether it is moral or not and they deserve the consequences of their actions. As a result, very often personality has to be studied in such a way that the data observed is relatively free from distortion by such mechanisms. Thus past behaviour record in violence or crime, helps in the prediction of the future occurrence of such behaviour. ‘Self-actualization’ is a basic and innate tendency which gradually unfolds itself within the boundaries of the world of reality as perceived by the individual. The pioneering effort in the development of projective testing was made by Herman Rorschach. An important development in the evolution of the dynamic approach was the epoch-making research conducted at the University of California on the concept of ‘authoritarian personality’. The concept of ‘self develops gradually and the most crucial thing for the development of a healthy personality is the degree of “congruence” or agreement between an individual’s ‘self-concept’ and ‘self-triggered’ expectation on one hand, and the actual experience of the person on the other. 6. These types of laws assume that people will do wrong and that their human personality is wrong. In other cases, the questions may be given without alternative answers and the person can answer them in his or her own words, thus being able to answer more freely. According to Lewin, we cannot make a categorical distinction between personality and behaviour. In daily life the term personality is very freely used by people with different meanings. One of the best known sentence completion tests was developed by Sacks. 4. This method has its advantages since equal attention and care can be bestowed on every aspect and a complete and comprehensive observation can be made. Generally, when a large number of people are to be tested in a short time and when these people are sufficiently educated, a structured questionnaire is used. However, these two approaches, both the trait approach and the type approach came in for severe criticism and this led to the emergence of the phenomenological approach. An individual’s psychological space need not exactly be compared to the physical space or order of things. I was also able to learn much more about the career that I may be pursuing in the future, as well as the people in the field similar to it. Personality is dynamic. Rosenzweig developed an adult form and a children’s form of this test. He always said that personality is an element that develops in human beings and the behavior responds depending on the external events. 3. Some psychologists like Eysenck are very critical of projective tests. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. In view of this, the term personality came to be used as one which explains behaviour rather than described behaviour. Anything from the way a person eats a meal, talks, laughs, drives a car, or enters a classroom and takes a seat affects this unique personality. Further, it can also be seen that the type of the test employed depends on the approach and theoretical bias of the person using the test. The Rorschach Test till today remains one of the best developed projective tests and is widely used. Attempts have been made to study personality development based on Rorschach responses by psychologists like Ames. The personality of an individual, to a large extent, remains stable. It is this consistency which makes behaviour predictable. These psychologists established through their research the existence of an authoritarian personality syndrome. After a series of efforts he arrived at a very simple test. (g) The phenomenological approach lays emphasis on the human personality as a ‘whole’ and distinct ‘totality’ and holds that it cannot be dissected into elements like traits, needs and reflexes. In addition, a number of other criteria are also used. Concept of Personal Constructs: Essay # 12. When someone rapes another they are taking away their free will to do whatever they choose. Short Essay on Personality! Extending Bandura’s concepts Mischel has come out with the view that in addition to the situational factors emphasised by Bandura, there are also certain factors or variables, which are of importance. Some examples of items in such inventories are given below: Subsequently a number of personality inventories and questionnaires were developed. A response based on the total blot is called ‘W. They depend for their usefulness on the verbal ability of the respondents. For example, when one describes a person as an honest person or a good person, one is passing a judgement on that person’s behaviour with reference to certain standards or norms of behaviour. OUR FEATURES. Functional analysis would therefore go in for careful observation of the behaviour, the situation under which it occurs, study how it has been reinforced in the past, and finally decide upon a more adaptive response like ‘assertive behaviour’, plan a schedule of reinforcement and establish the same behaviour. According to Mischel, such learnt person variables account for individual variations in the way people handle new situations. Personality has a structural and a functional component. c. humanistic psychology. Thus, what was at one time considered to be mysterious and impossible to measure has now been shown to be measurable with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. Human personality is what makes a person distinctive, unique, and exceptional. Essay # 1. In a way the phenomenological approach has restored to the human being his dignity as an active dynamic entity. Firstly, each question may be followed by certain alternative responses and the person has to respond by choosing the one which is nearest to what he feels is the truth. In life, humans rely on society to keep them in tact and instruct them on what to do. For example, some psychologists have defined the term personality as the sum total of all the characteristics of a person. Sometimes an incom­plete sentence may be followed by a few alternative answers and one is required to choose one’s response from these. and inner person gets differentiated into different systems, which are essentially motivational systems. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Personality’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. 3. To a great extent, principles and techniques used to measure intelligence and aptitude have found their way into personality measurement also. Poverty will remain a major human rights issue for decades to come. This view is in opposition to the earlier view of personality where the term ‘personality’ was used to describe the dominant or consistent characteristics in the psychological make-up of the individual. The scenes are semi-structured and provide enough opportunity for the subject to respond freely according to one’s own inner conditions. Philosophers and scientists belong to the thinking type, artists to the feeling type, fashion-makers to the sensation type and mystics to the intuitive type. Such questionnaires are called open-ended or unstructured. For example, it was shown that people with a certain type of personality react in a characteristic manner to certain situations. The difference between the trait and type approaches, is that the latter was not concerned about analysis of the entire personality with identifiable elements and arriving at a universal catalogue of traits. In view of the above problems, another approach, known as the analytic approach, is employed. The motivational, and conative factors have been totally neglected, and above all the fact of ‘individuality’. The theory is based on a speculation, Changes in human personality in relation to lack of society This refers to what personality ‘does’. Personality is the ability to aggregate different features that can be identified from different individuals and they work out for the individuals in a … Such as how I have found my personality group through Human metrics; which presented that I was within the INFJ grouping (Jung, 1998). Basically the behaviouristic position would hold that personality is nothing but the package of consistent and generalized elements in the behaviour of a person across different situations. Personality is the way that a person behaves, in short, the outcome of the human behavior. He classifies needs into ‘Viscerogenic ‘and. The individual is told that the story should clearly indicate the following: (a) Who is the hero or the main character? Again, in many instances, a combination of techniques is employed. The test however, requires that only a person with considerable experience should use it. This error is called the error of central tendency. For example, cheerfulness, persuasiveness, alertness, humour, spontaneity and other individual attributes can be separately rated and summed up. Several educational programmes for the mentally retarded have also been developed. Privacy Policy3. One’s personality is not only reflected in one’s behaviour but also determines one’s behaviour. And motivations arise and also aptitude tests by using verbal data models of different qualities or characteristics not possible predict., cheerfulness, persuasiveness, alertness, humour, spontaneity and other individual attributes can be through! 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